Thought Questions

Open Ended Problems

Several constitutive models were used in Chapter 3.  Discuss how engineers determine the form of each equation and values for the parameters.

Fundamental Balances


Rate of chemical reaction


Film heat transfer coefficient


   Flow rate through a restriction in a closed conduit









You want to rapidly heat up some cold soup to 70°C, and hold it at this temperature for 5 minutes.  You must not overheat the soup to avoid burning it.  Describe how you would adjust the flow of gas to achieve the desired temperature as fast as possible

System Insight

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The results from Example 3.4 show that the maximum temperature (when the furnace is switched off) is not exceeded during the transient.

System Insight